Stroke may occur due to reduction in the blood flow and oxygen transport to the brain after arterial occlusion (thrombus or embolus), arterial spasm, vessels rupture (aneurysm, hypertension), changes in blood viscosity, consequence of diabetes, or result of smoking, alcohol or obesity.
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy decreases blood viscosity and reduces clot formation as well as improves the deformability of the red blood cells making them more efficient in reaching distant capillaries.
Manifestations of stroke depending on the location of the neural damage could be: paralysis (hemiplegia or paraplegia), paresis, spasticity, flaccidity or muscle weakness, walking and balance impairment, intellectual and cognitive impairment (thinking understanding), speech impairment, memory disturbance (“vascular dementia”), sensitivity impairment, bladder and bowel dysfunction, sexual deficit.
Clinical application of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy in stroke has been widely used on experimental basis in acute stage as well as in the chronic stage – post stroke rehabilitation.
The benefit of HBO therapy in acute stage of stroke is due to the following:
HBO prevents further brain damage by improving cerebral oxygenation and relieving brain edema and neuronal swelling
HBO prevents further blood clotting by reducing blood viscosity and platelet aggregation
HBO reduces mortality rate in those who survive stroke to below 20%
The benefit of HBO in rehabilitation in a chronic stage of stroke is due to the following:
HBO reduces chance of stroke recurrences
HBO relieves muscle spasticity and increases muscle strength
HBO improves mobility and fine motor function
HBO improves walking and balance
HBO increases exercise capacity
HBO improves sensitivity
HBO improves mental function including speech and memory
HBO improves visual acuity
HBO improves bowel and bladder control and reduces sexual deficit
The reports of successful HBO therapy in chronic stroke have been mainly due to the possibility of oxygenation of the areas surrounding dead neuronal areas, which are anatomically intact but non-functional and have been dormant due to the initial lack of oxygen. These parts of brain called “ischemic penumbra” could possibly be reviewed with HBO, which would in turn initiate self-repair and establishment of lost connection due to the stroke. This would mean better mental and bodily functions.
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sumber : http://baromedical.ca/medical/neurological/stroke/
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