Diving and marine medicine review part II: diving diseases.
The Travel Medicine Center, Beverly Hills, California 90211, USA.
Diving is a high-risk sport. There are approximately between 1 to 3 million recreational scuba divers in the USA (with over a quarter-million learning scuba annually); there are about 1 million in Europe and over 50,000 in the United Kingdom. In this population 3-9 deaths/100,000 occur annually in the US alone, and those surviving diving injuries far exceeds this. Diving morbidity can be from near-drowning, from gas bubbles, from barotrauma or from environmental hazards. In reality, the most common cause of death in divers is drowning (60%), followed by pulmonary-related illnesses. The mean number of annual diving fatalities in the USA from 1970 to 1993 was 103.5 (sd 24.0) and the median was 106. This article will focus primarily upon pressure effects on the health of a diver. There are two principle ways pressure can affect us: by direct mechanical effects and by changing the partial pressures of inspired gases. Dysbarism is a general term used to describe pathology from altered environmental pressure, and has two main forms: barotrauma from the uncontrolled expansion of gas within gas-filled body compartments and decompression sickness from too rapid a return to atmospheric pressure after breathing air under increased pressures. Greater than 90% of the human body is either water or bone, which is incompressible; the areas directly affected by pressure changes thus are those that are filled with air or gas. These sites include the middle ear, the eustachian tube, the sinuses, the thorax, and the gastrointestinal tract. Air in these cavities is compressed when the ambient pressure rises because the pressure of inhaled air must equilibrate with the ambient pressure.
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
di tayangkan ulang oleh : dr.Erick Supondha (hyperbaric& diving medicine consultant) hiperbarik oksigen terapi >RS bethsaida , jakarta indonesia, (dokter hiperbarik/ahli hiperbarik/dokter kesehatan penyelaman)